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STAREXP : Main Sequence Modeling. Report_File = starexp.txt.
Tue Feb 12 13:23:16 2002

1 models processed in this run, 0-0.

MODEL = 0 INPUT VARIABLES:
Starname = Aldebaran.
Assumed polytropic structure: n=3, gamma=4/3.
Distance = 6.800000e+01 LY,
= 2.085890e+01 parsecs,
= 6.432800e+17 meters,
= 4.796860e-02 arc-seconds of parallax.
Visual magnitude = 0.860000.
Surface temperature[spect.type] = 3.780000e+03 degrees Kelvin.
Spectral type specified at entry time:
Henry Draper OBAFGKM Spectral type = K5.0 III [giant].
Spectrum: Strong metallic lines, CH & CN bands developing.
Wavelength at emission maximum = 767.195767 nanometers.
Schwarzschild abundances for Population I were used:
X[H] = 0.750000, Y[He] = 0.230000, Z[hvy] = 0.020000.
X_CNO = 0.008909.
Molecular weight mu = 0.594354.

MODEL = 0 OUTPUT VARIABLES, Aldebaran:
Absolute magnitude before bolometric correction: M = -0.736457.
Absolute magnitude after correction: M + B.C = -2.024014.
Bolometric Correction = -1.287557.

L/Lsun, M/Msun, R/Rsun, prior to bolometric correction:
L/Lsun = 158.144079, M/Msun = 4.416444, R/Rsun = 29.301813.

After bolometric corrections, these quantities are:
L/Lsun = 517.697272, M/Msun = 6.253888, R/Rsun = 53.015879.

Radius = 3.689905e+10 meters.
Mass = 1.244023e+31 kilograms.
Average density = 7.881946e-02 kg/m**3.
Central density = 4.270635e+00 kg/m**3.
Central pressure = 6.188233e+10 Newtons/m**3.
fbeta = [1-b]/b**4 = 4.856210e-03. beta = 9.952333e-01.
Central gas pressure = 6.158735e+10 Newtons/m**2.
Central radiation pressure = 2.949724e+08 Newtons/m**2.
Ratio radiation_pressure/gas_pressure = 4.789497e-03.
Central temperature = 1.039850e+06 degrees Kelvin.
Stellar gravitational Binding Energy = 4.196228e+41 Joules.

Star Type II pre-supernova, M/Msun = 6.253888e+00 > 6.23 Msun.
Relative likelihood of SN soon in progenitor class = 0.007955,

Stellar M.S. lifetime = 12.88x10**9[Msun/M]**2.409 = 1.555931e+08 yrs.
Zombeck lifetime = 13.0x10**9[Msun/M]**2.5 = 1.329132e+08 yrs.
Green's 1st M.S.lifetime = 9.92x10**9[Msun/M]**2 = 2.536363e+08 yrs.

VARIABLES FROM CENTER TO SURFACE I
n=3, gamma=4/3, Aldebaran.
Radius Density Temperature Pressure Degeneracy
r/Rsun kg/m**3 deg. Kelvin Newtons/m**2 Code
0.000000e+00 4.270635e+00 1.039850e+06 6.188233e+10 2
7.682236e-01 4.249349e+00 1.038119e+06 6.147141e+10 0
1.536447e+00 4.186294e+00 1.032959e+06 6.025821e+10 0
2.304671e+00 4.083809e+00 1.024460e+06 5.829937e+10 0
3.072894e+00 3.945604e+00 1.012770e+06 5.568368e+10 0
3.841118e+00 3.776484e+00 9.980882e+05 5.252429e+10 0
4.609342e+00 3.582025e+00 9.806541e+05 4.894948e+10 0
5.377565e+00 3.368212e+00 9.607406e+05 4.509300e+10 0
6.145789e+00 3.141105e+00 9.386431e+05 4.108530e+10 0
6.914012e+00 2.906520e+00 9.146693e+05 3.704598e+10 0
7.682236e+00 2.669797e+00 8.891311e+05 3.307864e+10 0
9.218683e+00 2.207886e+00 8.345747e+05 2.567707e+10 0
1.075513e+01 1.783465e+00 7.772508e+05 1.931654e+10 0
1.229158e+01 1.412381e+00 7.191017e+05 1.415291e+10 0
1.382802e+01 1.100266e+00 6.616660e+05 1.014472e+10 0
1.536447e+01 8.455981e-01 6.060768e+05 7.141597e+09 0
1.690092e+01 6.426871e-01 5.531033e+05 4.953469e+09 0
1.843737e+01 4.839876e-01 5.032121e+05 3.393821e+09 0
1.997381e+01 3.616517e-01 4.566357e+05 2.301251e+09 0
2.151026e+01 2.684081e-01 4.134327e+05 1.546337e+09 0
2.304671e+01 1.979698e-01 3.735419e+05 1.030486e+09 0
2.688783e+01 9.004512e-02 2.872719e+05 3.604598e+08 0
3.072894e+01 3.914517e-02 2.176201e+05 1.187082e+08 0
3.457006e+01 1.592370e-02 1.612455e+05 3.577958e+07 0
3.841118e+01 5.811467e-03 1.152307e+05 9.331634e+06 0
4.225230e+01 1.750237e-03 7.723935e+04 1.883818e+06 0
4.609342e+01 3.387643e-04 4.467922e+04 2.109147e+05 0
4.993453e+01 2.431577e-05 1.856817e+04 6.291595e+03 0
Degeneracy Code
= 0 -> no electron degeneracy.
= 1 -> relativistic electron degeneracy -> gamma=4/3.
= 2 -> non-relativistic electron degeneracy -> gamma=5/3.
 
 
 

VARIABLES FROM CENTER TO SURFACE II
n=3, gamma=4/3, Aldebaran.
Luminosity Partition in units of solar luminosity Lsun
Radius L_nuclear = L_radiative + L_conduction + L_convection
r/Rsun [Maximum]
0.000000 0.000000 7.012253e-05 1.010315e-47 -0.000070
0.768224 0.000000 3.137567e-04 0.000000e+00 -0.000314
1.536447 0.000000 8.660557e-04 0.000000e+00 -0.000866
2.304671 0.000000 1.685729e-03 0.000000e+00 -0.001686
3.072894 0.000000 2.765652e-03 0.000000e+00 -0.002766
3.841118 0.000000 4.097949e-03 0.000000e+00 -0.004098
4.609342 0.000000 5.673987e-03 0.000000e+00 -0.005674
5.377565 0.000000 7.484331e-03 0.000000e+00 -0.007484
6.145789 0.000000 9.519075e-03 0.000000e+00 -0.009519
6.914012 0.000000 1.176738e-02 0.000000e+00 -0.011767
7.682236 0.000000 2.956184e-02 0.000000e+00 -0.029562
9.218683 0.000000 4.005900e-02 0.000000e+00 -0.040059
10.755130 0.000000 5.168267e-02 0.000000e+00 -0.051683
12.291578 0.000000 6.425873e-02 0.000000e+00 -0.064259
13.828025 0.000000 7.762679e-02 0.000000e+00 -0.077627
15.364472 0.000000 9.164766e-02 0.000000e+00 -0.091648
16.900919 0.000000 1.062127e-01 0.000000e+00 -0.106213
18.437366 0.000000 1.212477e-01 0.000000e+00 -0.121248
19.973814 0.000000 1.367211e-01 0.000000e+00 -0.136721
21.510261 0.000000 1.526423e-01 0.000000e+00 -0.152642
23.046708 0.000000 3.563447e-01 0.000000e+00 -0.356345
26.887826 0.000000 4.403664e-01 0.000000e+00 -0.440366
30.728944 0.000000 5.346592e-01 0.000000e+00 -0.534659
34.570062 0.000000 6.454876e-01 0.000000e+00 -0.645488
38.411180 0.000000 7.804237e-01 0.000000e+00 -0.780424
42.252298 0.000000 9.446427e-01 0.000000e+00 -0.944643
Last 2 table entries omitted.

NUCLEAR REACTIONS MAP, Aldebaran
Structure: n=3, gamma = 4/3.
The star is assumed homogeneously mixed, mu=5.943536e-01.
Threshold:10**7 K 10**8 K 5x10**8 K 10**9 2x10**9 3x10**9
[approx.] Hydrogen Helium Carbon Neon Oxygen Silicon
burns to to C & O O,Ne,Na, O,Mg Mg-S to Iron.
r/Rsun Helium Mg
0.000000e+00, weak [T=1.039850e+06 K]
7.682236e-01, weak [T=1.038119e+06 K]
1.536447e+00, weak [T=1.032959e+06 K]
2.304671e+00, weak [T=1.024460e+06 K]
3.072894e+00, weak [T=1.012770e+06 K]
3.841118e+00, weak [T=9.980882e+05 K]
4.609342e+00, weak [T=9.806541e+05 K]
5.377565e+00, weak [T=9.607406e+05 K]
6.145789e+00, weak [T=9.386431e+05 K]
6.914012e+00, weak [T=9.146693e+05 K]
7.682236e+00, weak [T=8.891311e+05 K]
9.218683e+00, weak [T=8.345747e+05 K]
1.075513e+01, weak [T=7.772508e+05 K]
1.229158e+01, weak [T=7.191017e+05 K]
1.382802e+01, weak [T=6.616660e+05 K]
1.536447e+01, weak [T=6.060768e+05 K]
1.690092e+01, weak [T=5.531033e+05 K]
1.843737e+01, weak [T=5.032121e+05 K]
1.997381e+01, weak [T=4.566357e+05 K]
2.151026e+01, weak [T=4.134327e+05 K]
2.304671e+01, weak [T=3.735419e+05 K]
2.688783e+01, weak [T=2.872719e+05 K]
3.072894e+01, weak [T=2.176201e+05 K]
3.457006e+01, weak [T=1.612455e+05 K]
3.841118e+01, weak [T=1.152307e+05 K]
4.225230e+01, weak [T=7.723935e+04 K]
4.609342e+01, weak [T=4.467922e+04 K]
4.993453e+01, weak [T=1.856817e+04 K]

IDEALIZED CORE DIMENSIONS
For the screened Chiu pp-fusion chain epsilon in J/Kg-sec,
Model 0 idealized uniform core r/R = 1.000000, FAILS.
r such that Lstar = [(4pi/3)*r**3]*epsilon[ro,t]
for ro and t at their central values for this polytrope.

FUSION - NUCLEAR LUMINOSITY MEASURES,
gamma = 4/3, n=3, Aldebaran
Non-Normalized, Official Fusion Functions integrated
over the polytrope from the center to the surface.
Chiu luminosity includes electrostatic screening.
[M/Msun]**4 = Max[L/Lsun] = 1.529680e+03,[Upper bound].
Computed observed L/Lsun = 5.176973e+02,[from distance & m]*.
[M/Msun]**3 = Min[L/Lsun] = 2.445966e+02,[Lower bound.]
P-P chain luminosity L/Lsun = 4.056425e-12,[Donald D.Clayton]
P-P chain luminosity L/Lsun = 1.051466e-11,[Chiu,screened.]
P-P chain luminosity L/Lsun = 7.069983e-12,[Chiu,unscreened.]
P-P chain luminosity L/Lsun = 4.323459e-12,[Martin Scharzschild]
P-P fusion luminosity L/Lsun = 1.394595e-08,[A.C.Phillips]
Carbon cycle only L_CNO/Lsun = 5.881406e-29,[CNO cycle, M.Schw.]
Triple-Alpha cyc. L_He/Lsun = 0.000000e+00,[Helium burning]
 
 

FUSION PROCESS DIAGNOSIS:
[L_Star - L_Chiu]/L_star = 1.000000e+00,
[L_Star/L_Chiu] = 4.923575e+13.
The star is overluminous according to the
n=3, gamma=4/3 polytropic structural hypothesis,
because the model is not centrally dense enough.
The star is actually denser at the center than the model.
A model with a higher polytropic index n may be
required to improve the stellar structure description.

4th power L/Lsun-Max/[L/Lsun-obs] = 2.954776e+00,
L/Lsun-observed/[L/Lsun-obs] = 1.000000e+00, *
3rd power L/Lsun-Min/[L/Lsun-obs] = 4.724703e-01,
L/Lsun_Clayton/[L/Lsun] = 7.835516e-15,
L/Lsun_Chiu_screened/[L/Lsun] = 2.031045e-14,
L/Lsun_Chiu_unscreened/[L/Lsun] = 1.365660e-14,
L/Lsun_Schwarzschild/[L/Lsun] = 8.351327e-15,
L/Lsun_Phillips/[L/Lsun-observed] = 2.693843e-11.
L_CNO/Lsun/[L/Lsun-observed] = 1.136070e-31.
L_He/Lsun/[L/Lsun-observed] = 0.000000e+00.
 
 

TYPE II SUPERNOVA PROGENITOR REPORT: Aldebaran.
Star is a pre-supernova M/Msun = 6.253888 > 6.23 Msun.
Over the class of Type II pre-supernova stars:
Relative likelihood of a supernova soon = 0.009181,
Star max age = 12.88x10**9[Msun/M]**2.409 = 1.555931e+08 yrs.
Likelihood of a supernova this year = 6.427022e-09.
Likelihood of a supernova this century = 6.427022e-07.
Other factors influencing supernova likelihood:
L/Lsun-observed/Chiu_pp_fusion_luminosity[n=3] = 4.923575e+13
L/Lsun-observed/Schwarzschld_CNO_luminosity [n=3] = 8.802271e+30
Model expon. core compaction factor a/R = 0.015500 at which
Phillips pp-fusion luminosity = observed luminosity.
a = 571935.300437 kilometers. a/Rsun = 0.821746.
Model core expon. central density = 3.783334e+00 kg/m**3
Model core expon. central temperature = 2.266847e+06 deg.K.
Model core central pressure = 1.189393e+11 Newtons/m**2.
A typical Supernova features L/Lsun = 1.0x10**10.
Typical SN blastwave pressure here = 8.799075e-03 Newtons/m**2.
Blastwave assumed min velocity = 2.000000e+03 km/sec
Estimated max blastwave arrival time > 1.012017e+04 years.
Blastwave Zwicky max velocity = 3.000000e+04 km/sec
Estimated min blastwave arrival time > 6.112318e+02 years.
Typically, Lsupernova/Lsun = 10**10, initially.
Then the initial visual magnitude of the SN = -18.552658.
Typical max Temperature Change here = 0.000000 degrees K.
= 0.000000 degrees F.
Typical events per cm**3 in human body = 2.778979e-02.
Predicted total SN burst energy in ergs = 3.734524e+52.
in Joules = 3.734524e+45.
EVOLUTION OF SUPERNOVA Aldebaran LUMINOSITY,
Day Luminosity Visual_Magnitude
(L/Lsun)
0 3.981073e+09 -17.552658 brighter than moon's -12.
10 1.000000e+10 -18.552658 brighter than moon's -12.
20 7.005633e+09 -18.166276 brighter than moon's -12.
30 4.213644e+09 -17.614302 brighter than moon's -12.
40 2.534359e+09 -17.062328 brighter than moon's -12.
50 1.524329e+09 -16.510354 brighter than moon's -12.
60 9.168304e+08 -15.958380 brighter than moon's -12.
70 5.514414e+08 -15.406406 brighter than moon's -12.
80 3.316728e+08 -14.854432 brighter than moon's -12.
90 1.994896e+08 -14.302458 brighter than moon's -12.
120 1.454656e+08 -13.959558 brighter than moon's -12.
150 1.060719e+08 -13.616658 brighter than moon's -12.
180 7.734642e+07 -13.273758 brighter than moon's -12.
210 5.640015e+07 -12.930858 brighter than moon's -12.
240 4.112636e+07 -12.587958 brighter than moon's -12.
270 2.998888e+07 -12.245058 brighter than moon's -12.
300 2.186756e+07 -11.902158 moon brighter at -12.
330 1.594558e+07 -11.559258 moon brighter at -12.
360 1.162734e+07 -11.216358 moon brighter at -12.
 
 

If the star is a close binary, it may be able to erupt as
a classical nova with 2.5x10**4 Lsun < L < 4x10*5 Lsun.
At max luminosity, m_classical_nova = -7.550774.
If L/Lsun = 10**10, m_supernova = -18.552658.
For Type I or Type II SN of Aldebaran.
William K. Rose gives a classical nova maximum
luminosity that is higher, 3x10**5 Lsun. Then for
Aldebaran
brightest m_classical_nova = -7.245461